Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (7)
Updated: 2009-07-25
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complex - basics of complex mathematics  


#include <complex.h>  


Complex numbers are numbers of the form z = a+b*i, where a and b are real numbers and i = sqrt(-1), so that i*i = -1.
There are other ways to represent that number. The pair (a,b) of real numbers may be viewed as a point in the plane, given by X- and Y-coordinates. This same point may also be described by giving the pair of real numbers (r,phi), where r is the distance to the origin O, and phi the angle between the X-axis and the line Oz. Now z = r*exp(i*phi) = r*(cos(phi)+i*sin(phi)).

The basic operations are defined on z = a+b*i and w = c+d*i as:

addition: z+w = (a+c) + (b+d)*i
multiplication: z*w = (a*c - b*d) + (a*d + b*c)*i
division: z/w = ((a*c + b*d)/(c*c + d*d)) + ((b*c - a*d)/(c*c + d*d))*i

Nearly all math function have a complex counterpart but there are some complex-only functions.  


Your C-compiler can work with complex numbers if it supports the C99 standard. Link with -lm. The imaginary unit is represented by I.

/* check that exp(i * pi) == -1 */
#include <math.h>        /* for atan */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <complex.h>

    double pi = 4 * atan(1.0);
    double complex z = cexp(I * pi);
    printf("%f + %f * i\n", creal(z), cimag(z));


cabs(3), carg(3), cexp(3), cimag(3), creal(3)  


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