#include <math.h>
double fma(double x, double y, double z);
float fmaf(float x, float y, float z);
long double fmal(long double x, long double y,
long double z);
These functions shall compute (x * y) + z, rounded as one ternary operation: they shall compute the value (as if) to infinite precision and round once to the result format, according to the rounding mode characterized by the value of FLT_ROUNDS.
An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.
Upon successful completion, these functions shall return (x * y) + z, rounded as one ternary operation.
If x or y are NaN, a NaN shall be returned.
If x multiplied by y is an exact infinity and z is also an infinity but with the opposite sign, a domain error shall occur, and either a NaN (if supported), or an implementation-defined value shall be returned.
If one of x and y is infinite, the other is zero, and z is not a NaN, a domain error shall occur, and either a NaN (if supported), or an implementation-defined value shall be returned.
If one of x and y is infinite, the other is zero, and z is a NaN, a NaN shall be returned and a domain error may occur.
If x* y is not 0*Inf nor Inf*0 and z is a NaN, a NaN shall be returned.
These functions shall fail if:
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [EDOM]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the invalid floating-point exception shall be raised.
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the overflow floating-point exception shall be raised.
These functions may fail if:
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [EDOM]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the invalid floating-point exception shall be raised.
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the underflow floating-point exception shall be raised.
The following sections are informative.
On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.
In many cases, clever use of floating (fused) multiply-add leads to much improved code; but its unexpected use by the compiler can undermine carefully written code. The FP_CONTRACT macro can be used to disallow use of floating multiply-add; and the fma() function guarantees its use where desired. Many current machines provide hardware floating multiply-add instructions; software implementation can be used for others.
feclearexcept(), fetestexcept(), the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 4.18, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, <math.h>