Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: December 2009
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od - dump files in octal and other formats  


od [OPTION]... [FILE]...
od [-abcdfilosx]... [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b]]
od --traditional [OPTION]... [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b] [+][LABEL][.][b]]  


Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE argument, concatenate them in the listed order to form the input. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

All arguments to long options are mandatory for short options.

-A, --address-radix=RADIX
decide how file offsets are printed
-j, --skip-bytes=BYTES
skip BYTES input bytes first
-N, --read-bytes=BYTES
limit dump to BYTES input bytes
-S, --strings[=BYTES]
output strings of at least BYTES graphic chars
-t, --format=TYPE
select output format or formats
-v, --output-duplicates
do not use * to mark line suppression
-w, --width[=BYTES]
output BYTES bytes per output line
accept arguments in traditional form
display this help and exit
output version information and exit

Traditional format specifications may be intermixed; they accumulate:

same as -t a, select named characters, ignoring high-order bit
same as -t o1, select octal bytes
same as -t c, select ASCII characters or backslash escapes
same as -t u2, select unsigned decimal 2-byte units
same as -t fF, select floats
same as -t dI, select decimal ints
same as -t dL, select decimal longs
same as -t o2, select octal 2-byte units
same as -t d2, select decimal 2-byte units
same as -t x2, select hexadecimal 2-byte units

If first and second call formats both apply, the second format is assumed if the last operand begins with + or (if there are 2 operands) a digit. An OFFSET operand means -j OFFSET. LABEL is the pseudo-address at first byte printed, incremented when dump is progressing. For OFFSET and LABEL, a 0x or 0X prefix indicates hexadecimal; suffixes may be . for octal and b for multiply by 512.

TYPE is made up of one or more of these specifications:

named character, ignoring high-order bit
ASCII character or backslash escape
signed decimal, SIZE bytes per integer
floating point, SIZE bytes per integer
octal, SIZE bytes per integer
unsigned decimal, SIZE bytes per integer
hexadecimal, SIZE bytes per integer

SIZE is a number. For TYPE in doux, SIZE may also be C for sizeof(char), S for sizeof(short), I for sizeof(int) or L for sizeof(long). If TYPE is f, SIZE may also be F for sizeof(float), D for sizeof(double) or L for sizeof(long double).

RADIX is d for decimal, o for octal, x for hexadecimal or n for none. BYTES is hexadecimal with 0x or 0X prefix, and may have a multiplier suffix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB 1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y. Adding a z suffix to any type displays printable characters at the end of each output line. Option --string without a number implies 3; option --width without a number implies 32. By default, od uses -A o -t oS -w16.  


Written by Jim Meyering.  


Report od bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>  


Copyright © 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  


The full documentation for od is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and od programs are properly installed at your site, the command
info coreutils aqod invocationaq

should give you access to the complete manual.